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高强螺栓易松动的原因

来源:https://www.xjnwz.com 日期:2022-08-23 发布人:wanzhong

探究高强螺栓易松动的原因,一种是客观原因,由于机械运动,该螺栓防松不好等而引起松动;还有一种是人为因素,因疏忽而没有拧紧等。(我们从客观和人为原因量方便做分析)

Explore the reasons why high-strength bolts are easy to loosen. One is the objective reason, which is caused by mechanical movement and poor anti loosening of the bolts; There are also human factors, such as failure to tighten due to negligence. (we analyze it from objective and human factors)
具体客观原因
Specific objective reasons
1 、螺栓质量差。 螺栓防松不好往往与螺栓的制造精度不高、防松设计缺陷有关。 如华夏塔吊的高强螺栓的防松螺母明显偏窄,其防松效果自然就差一些。
1. Poor bolt quality. The poor anti loosening of bolts is often related to the low manufacturing accuracy of bolts and the defects of anti loosening design. For example, the locknut of the high-strength bolt of Huaxia tower crane is obviously narrow, and its anti loosening effect is naturally poor.
2 、螺纹牙滑扣。 如螺栓多次装拆,可能发生螺纹牙滑扣现象,导致螺栓松动。
2. Thread thread sliding buckle. If the bolts are installed and disassembled for many times, the thread thread may slip, resulting in loosening of the bolts.
3 、螺纹斜面间的摩擦力瞬时消失或减小。 塔机在工作中,经常受到振动、冲击和变载荷作用,或者温度变化很大环境节,这样,螺栓连接中的螺纹斜面间的摩擦力就可能瞬时消失或减小。这种现象的多次重复出现就会使连接逐渐松脱,影响连接的刚性及紧密性。
3. The friction between the inclined surfaces of the thread disappears or decreases instantaneously. The tower crane is often subjected to vibration, impact and variable load during operation, or the temperature changes greatly. In this way, the friction between the thread slopes in the bolt connection may disappear or decrease instantaneously. Repeated occurrence of this phenomenon will gradually loosen the connection and affect the rigidity and tightness of the connection.
具体人为原因
Specific human causes
1、人为疏忽。由于个别安装人员的疏忽而导致部分螺栓未紧固,而检查人员因疏忽而未发现。这里需要着重强调对安装人员、顶升作业人员、操作人员的安全技术交底,强调安装、顶升工序完成后的自检、互检,防止遗漏高强度螺栓的拧紧,防止这种严重安全隐患的发生和存在。
1. Human negligence. Some bolts were not fastened due to the negligence of individual installers, but the inspectors did not find them due to negligence. Here, it is necessary to emphasize the safety technical disclosure to the installation personnel, jacking operators and operators, and the self inspection and mutual inspection after the completion of the installation and jacking procedures to prevent the omission of tightening of high-strength bolts and the occurrence and existence of such serious safety hazards.
2、工具原因。由于无专用扳手或力矩扳手,作业人员只能凭各自的经验或感觉对螺栓紧固,每个人的力量各不相同,导致各个螺栓的预紧力矩不同,当同一连接处的一组连接副预紧力相差过大时,各连接副的螺栓所承受的轴向力就相差很大,预紧力大的螺栓长期处于重载荷下,容易产生螺栓松动及疲劳断裂等情况。
2. Tool reason. Since there is no special wrench or torque wrench, the operators can only fasten the bolts according to their own experience or feeling. The strength of each person is different, resulting in different pretightening torques of each bolt. When the pretightening force of a group of connection pairs at the same connection is too large, the axial force borne by the bolts of each connection pair is very different. The bolts with large pretightening force are under heavy load for a long time, which is prone to bolt loosening and fatigue fracture.
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